The UK has always been a leader in medical invention - the challenge is to spread that innovation quickly and consistently.

New analysis, presented in this report, shows that if we were to match the performance of our international peers we could save an estimated 20,000 avoidable deaths each year.

IPPR’s research with people working in the system showed three thematic barriers experienced by the frontline, which should be immediate priorities.

  • A risk-averse culture, driven by the approach to performance management and focus on short-term targets.
  • The sheer complexity of the NHS, coupled with a lack of networks, creating a ‘not invented here’ culture.
  • A lack of resource, including a lack of financial support.

Policy change should come in two phases.

First, the centre must set the rules of the game in the long term – by making minimum standards, accountability, roles and regulations clear.

Second, there must be much more active support for local providers and commissioners.