Transport investment is crucial for the north of England. Every region needs a reliable and effective transport network for people to live and work, but the North – with its five major cities, 265 towns, almost 1,000 villages and smaller communities, eight major ports and four national parks – needs it more than most.

This transport network has let down the North’s people and its economy for decades, and especially in recent years. Every year IPPR North undertakes two analyses of transport spending: historic spending, and planned spending. Every year this shows that central government has spent significantly more on transport in London historically, and still plans to do so in future.

This is a crucial time and the upcoming spending review presents an opportunity for the government to demonstrate their commitment to the Northern Powerhouse.