Vaccines have been integral to health and prosperity in the last three centuries.

The Covid-19 vaccination has again demonstrated the value of vaccines – to lives, livelihoods, and national prosperity. Despite that success, it is imperative that the UK isn’t complacent: there is still huge room for improvement.

Doing better on vaccines could support population health, NHS system readiness and the economy. The key lesson from the Covid-19 vaccination programme is that an overly individualised approach to vaccine uptake and inequality is fundamentally limited.

On that basis, our policy recommendations explore how we can move ahead on vaccines, by harnessing the role of innovation, a wider range of public institutions, government, and businesses to support equality in access, uptake, and outcomes.